By Sandra A. Thompson
Wappo is an indigenous language, commonly considered as a language isolate, which was spoken within the Russian River Valley, simply north of San Francisco, California. This reference grammar is predicated at the speech of Laura Fish Somersal, its final fluent speaker, who died in 1990, and represents the main vast facts and grammatical study ever performed in this language. The grammar specializes in morphosyntax, rather nominal, verbal, and clausal constructions and clause combining styles, from a functional/typological standpoint.
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Additional resources for A Reference Grammar of Wappo (University of California Publications in Linguistics)
For further discussion of case in Wappo, see Li and Thompson (1976). 2. In a few examples in our data, the nominative appears as -ti. 3. Our field notes recurrently record both poleʔi and polaʔi for ‘boy-NOM’; as far as we can tell, they were interchangeable for Laura. 2 Accusative: -ø The accusative, the unmarked case, is used for patients and other patient-like arguments of transitive verbs, for the single argument in an equational sentence, and for all subjects when they occur in dependent clauses (see chapter 6).
Cephi hincaṭi: - seʔ 3SG:NOM wake:up - DUR ‘s/he’s waking up’ (374) b. 3 Past for actions [ = PST; -taʔ] What we are glossing PST is restricted to transitive actions performed in the past, as well as intransitive actions performed in the past which do not result in identifiable states. A. ’ (23) (53) ah leʔa mey - ocow el - taʔ 1SG:NOM many water - root dig - PST ‘I dug lots of swamp-roots’ (191) B. 1 The data make it clear that it is resultant state and 1. Interestingly, reports of past actions without a resulting state seem to be crosslinguistically relatively rarely used in ordinary discourse; it seems that people tend to associate pastness with “closure”.
9 Pronouns (93) cephi may' - piyaʔ holowik'a naw - taʔ 3SG:NOM REFL - near snake see - PST ‘s/he saw a snake near him/herself’ (53) Here are further examples of 3CO with non-body-part genitives: (94) nom - khiʔ khon' polaʔ - i me - meʔ on - k'a live - STAT EVID boy - NOM 3CO - GEN people - COM ‘there lived, they say, a boyi with hisi people’ (Text E, 295) (95) ce k'ew - i me - meʔ kapote č'a - welis - taʔ DEM man - NOM 3CO - GEN coat ‘the mani took off hisi coat’ (78) (96) cel' neteʔ - met'a - i me DIR - take:off - PST ek'a:pi - thu then mole - woman - NOM 3CO daughter - DAT cew - is - taʔ ...