By Dr.-Ing. Ulrich Tietze, Dr.-Ing. Christoph Schenk (auth.)
In the sooner levels of built-in circuit layout, analog circuits consisted easily of kind 741 operational amplifiers, and electronic circuits of 7400-type gates. contemporary designers needs to make a choice from a miles greater and quickly expanding number of specified built-in circuits advertised by way of a dynamic and artistic undefined. simply through a formal choice from this wide selection can a cost-effective and aggressive resolution be discovered to a given challenge. for every person case the fashion designer needs to come to a decision which elements of a circuit are top carried out through analog circuitry, which by means of traditional electronic circuitry and which sections might be microprocessor managed. which will facilitate this determination for the clothier who's no longer accustomed to most of these matters, we now have prepared the booklet with a view to team the several circuits in keeping with their box of software. every one bankruptcy is therefore written to face by itself, with at the least cross-references. To allow the reader to continue quick from an concept to a operating circuit, we speak about, for a wide number of difficulties, common suggestions, the applicability of which has been proved via thorough experimental research. Our thank you are right here because of Prof. Dr. D. Seitzer for the availability of fine laboratory amenities. the topic is large and the cloth awarded has needed to be constrained. consequently, we've passed over simple circuit layout, in order that the e-book addresses the complex scholar who has a few again floor in electronics, and the training engineer and scientist.
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Extra resources for Advanced Electronic Circuits
Rn k = V O (k+l)-Vok . 34) U;(k+l)-Vik n: 2n+1 -sm~~- 2n+1 F or the highest breakpoint, when k = n, the slope becomes zero, as was stipulated earlier in the qualitative description. The slope rno must be chosen as unity. For reasons of symmetry, no even harmonics appear. s. 8 %for 2n = 12. However, as real diode characteristics do not have sharp breakpoints, the actual distortion is considerably lower. This is shown by the following example. A voltage of triangular waveshape with a peak value of ~ = 5 V is to be converted into a sinusoidal voltage.
42 % and therefore clearly below the theoretical value for ideal diodes. Power series expansion Another method for the approximation of a sine function is the use of a power series since x3 X S sinx=x--+-- + ... 3! 5! 1 Linear and non-linear operational circuitry 28 To keep the number of components low, the series is broken off after the second term and this results in an error. 3]. 96 and ±1t/2. 57 % of the amplitude. 6 %. 25 % by a slight variation of the coefficients, and is therefore somewhat smaller than for the piecewise approximation method using 2 x 3 breakpoints.
7 Function networks + 29 + l 1 Ui Fig. 29 Approximation of the sine function, using a differential amplifier stage. 1, that for a differential amplifier, using Eq. 37) This function can be interpreted as approximating the sine function The quality of the sine approximation is dependtlllt on the peak value q chosen. 86I E R 2 • The value of the absolute error remains below 3 %of the amplitude, and is greatest at the peak values. 3 % to approx. 4 %. Linear and non-linear operational circuitry 30 Cosine function The cosine function can be formed for values 0;;;; x ;;;; 1t by means of the sine function networks previously described.