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By Ilya Prigogine

A part of a chain dedicated to aiding the reader receive common information regarding a large choice of subject matters in chemical physics. Its goal is to provide entire analyses of matters of curiosity and to motivate the expression of person issues of view.

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11). The thickness Ar, is of minor importance since it will not appear explicitly in our final results. The surface S will be divided rather arbitrarily in subsurfaces S, of subgroups i for each atom except hydrogen, that is, for C, 0, and N in our examples, which carry the fractional charge Q j of the subgroup i. Only five sizes S j = k,(4 - li) are allowed for each subgroup surface according to the number 1; of bonds to another subgroup center nuclei j , so that 4 - l j counts the sum of the number of bonds to H atoms, of 2p,-orbitals for double bonds, and of lone-pair orbitals of the ith central atom.

Since we are primarily interested in dative bonds, d 2and 9’differ in energy and we will use the convention that 9*is lower in energy than d’. Detailed consideration of this model is very instructive because we deal with the exact solution of the problem and we will be primarily interested in the nature of the exact two-electron wavefunctions. %(2), ld9)= d(l)B(2) and ) B d )= 9 ( 1 ) d ( 2 ) . 1) The Hamiltonian operator for the two electrons can be written as where h( 1) and d(2) are one-electron Hamiltonian operators.

_ . . .... ....... .... Chan. 50 I /ns 5 100 " " 1 ' 288 150 " 10 ' I " " I 15 ' 20 Fig. 17. 91 ns]. 33 34 E. LIPPERT ET AL. At temperatures sufficiently below T,, the back reaction k,, is not fast enough to compete with k t and k ; , thus the entire decay curves can be thought of as representing equilibration without reaching it within the time given by the lifetime of the excited A* state. 17 shows an example measured with time-correlated single-photon counting. 86 Figure 2 . 1 7 ~shows that for compounds with a larger rotating amino moiety than in DMABN, this TICT formation rate in cooled n-butyl chloride is slow enough for the delayed appearance of the A* emission to be quite evident (Fig.

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