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By David Levinson

An exam and comparability of the ways that diversified cultures exhibit and unravel clash. appears to be like at numerous types of aggression between contributors and teams, together with kinfolk violence, capital punishment, animal cruelty and rites of initiation, and on the resolutions tried.

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Elders' Council systems, in which the disputants must use a third party who adjudicates and issues a decision that is binding. The third party is a respected person or group of persons such as elders, community leaders, or family heads. 5. Restricted Council systems, in which the disputants must use a third party who adjudicates and issues a decision that is binding. Here, the third party is a council composed of the community elite—the wealthy, the landowners, the political leaders—who have considerable decision-making power.

The same factors operate to encourage bride raiding as well, although the relationship between the kin groups is of minor importance, as under normal circumstances men and women from the two groups would not marry one another. This is an important reason why raiding might be preferred over bride theft, as the husband is not likely to be troubled by his wife's kin. However, it is not always that simple; among the Shona of Zimbabwe a husband might attribute misfortune to his wife's spirit, who is angry because a bride price was never paid.

The Masai of Kenya, who in pre- and early-colonial times DEINDIVIDUATION fought with neighboring groups, went to even greater lengths. Warriors combed their hair into pigtails, and wore long necklaces, a feathered cap, a helmet decorated with ostrich feathers, ornamental leggings, and body oil. These examples suggest that deindividuation may be one psychological component of the military glory complex, found in many cultures around the world, where men achieve status and power through their exploits in war.

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