Download All the facts : a history of information in the United by James W. Cortada PDF

By James W. Cortada

"All the evidence offers a heritage of the function of data within the usa given that 1870, while the state all started a virtually 150-year interval of financial prosperity and technological and clinical adjustments. James Cortada argues that voters and their associations used details greatly as instruments to reinforce their paintings and personal lives and they used proof to assist form how the kingdom developed during

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this is often the 1st nationwide heritage of the function of data within the usa, from the 1870s to the current. It explores using details within the inner most and public sectors, and in the Read more...

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At the dawn of the twentieth century organized approaches spread to courses in high school (shop, home economics, typing, auto repair, creative writing), school clubs, organized sports, then through junior and four-year college programs. Eventually graduate schools became centers for training workers in knowledgeintensive occupations, such as in medicine, law, and business administration. 70 Two other forms of codification of information became so ubiquitous that they are barely acknowledged. Money, specifically the material object of paper currency and coinage, was the primary informational media used to transact business or I n t r o d u c i n g A m e r i c a n I n f or m at i o n ( 17 ) to measure the value of objects and services.

Living in the proximity of individuals exchanging it covered the lion’s share of expense. The act of exchange and its effect was caught nicely by Thomas Jefferson in 1813: “He who receives an idea from me receives instruction himself without lessening mine; as he who lights his taper at mine receives light without darkening me… . ”55 It was a reminder of the enabling and constraining feature of economic realities. Formal education was a sixth facilitator. Even small amounts of instruction got people to read and to count, and with a bit more education, to calculate and to measure.

More importantly, as discussed in ­chapter 2, the number of years of formal education by students rose over time. 74 A bigger problem relates to the legacy of slavery. During slavery, it was against local laws in southern states to teach slaves how to read and write, for fear they would be able to use communications to foment slave revolts. Perhaps 5 percent of slaves received some education, while a similar percentage of free African Americans were literate. Educational facilities for freed slaves in post–Civil War America lagged in number and quality compared to those for white students, to such an extent that the Supreme Court ruled that this disparity was unconstitutional in 1954 in the Brown v.

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