By Ian Hickman

This ebook is meant for the working towards digital engineer explaining analog digital circuits as easily as attainable. Its goal is to take the reader inside of digital circuits explaining precisely what they do by using vector diagrams

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Extra info for Analog Electronics. Analog Circuitry Explained

Sample text

With the power transformers we have seen so far, designed for a specified rated primary voltage, the safe off-load condition is with the secondary open-circuit; the secondary load connected then defines the secondary current actually drawn. In the case of a current transformer, designed for a specified maximum primary current, where the current is determined by the external primary circuit and not by the load, we are in the topsy-turvy constant current world. T h e safe off-load condition is with the secondary short-circuited, correspond­ ing to no voltage drop across the primary.

4 V filament. designed for battery portable sets. This was almost a complete radio in one valve - the thermionic equivalent of analog LSI! But enough of nostalgia; it's time to move on to solid state semiconductor devices. Semiconductor diodes The simplest semiconductor device is the diode, which, like its predecessor the thermionic diode, conducts current in o n e direction only. It is Active components arguable that diodes in general are not really active devices at all, but simply non-linear passive devices.

A) Directly h e a t e d . (b) Indirectly h e a t e d . 2a). At a fixed anode voltage, the anode current could be in­ creased by a positive bias at the grid and decreased by a negative bias, whilst (at least for a negative bias) the grid itself drew virtually no current at all. g. head­ phones, in the anode circuit, the power delivered to the load could be controlled by the grid voltage. The valve - a triode - would thus provide gain, since the variations of current through the load delivered several or many milliwatts of power, whereas the controlling grid voltage variations drew negligible current and hence virtually no power.