By Marcel Pelgrom
This textbook is suitable to be used in graduate-level curricula in analog-to-digital conversion, in addition to for practising engineers short of a state of the art reference on information converters. It discusses numerous analog-to-digital conversion ideas, together with sampling, quantization, reference new release, nyquist architectures and sigma-delta modulation. This publication offers an outline of the state-of-the-art during this box and makes a speciality of problems with optimizing accuracy and velocity, whereas decreasing the facility level.
This new, 3rd variation emphasizes novel calibration techniques, the categorical requisites of latest structures, the results of 22-nm know-how and the necessity for a extra statistical method of accuracy. Pedagogical improvements to this variation comprise extra, new routines, solved examples to introduce all key, new thoughts and warnings, feedback and tricks, from a practitioner's point of view, anywhere applicable. massive heritage details and sensible suggestions, from designing a PCB, to lay-out elements, to trade-offs on procedure point, supplement the dialogue of simple rules, making this booklet a beneficial reference for the skilled engineer.
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Extra resources for Analog-to-Digital Conversion
Consider that the power consumption of the following digital circuit is proportional to the sampling frequency and must be low. Fig. 14 Three solutions for sampling a bandwidth between 33 and 39 MHz fs=39 Ms/s 2fs fs fs=13 Ms/s 2fs 3fs Solution. A sampling rate of 78 Ms/s misses the point in the Nyquist criterion, as the bandwidth is only 6 MHz and not 39 MHz. The Nyquist rate is 12 Ms/s so alternatives are shown in Fig. 14. A sample rate of 39 Ms/s will work, but causes a lot of digital power.
As Fig. 17 shows, chopping with a block wave can be done with lower frequencies than the bandwidth of the input signal. Chopping does not compress the signal into one single value, and consequently there is no direct impact of the Nyquist criterion on chopping. On the other hand, chopping is a form of modulation and so any unwanted signals entering the chopping chain between the two modulators may cause problems and alias filtering is a remedy. / n nD1;3;5;:: fchop Input + fchop DC error Signal proc.
If the tone in the output spectrum varies by a multiple of the offset i fin , the i-th harmonic of the input tone is involved. Now the same procedure is repeated for the sampling rate, identifying j fs as the originator. The integers i; j in the formula i fin ˙ j fs are known and the evaluation of this formula should point at the unexpected tone position. , suppose there is a reaction on varying the sampling rate, but not on input signal variations. Probably an external frequency is entering the system and gets mixed down in the sampling chain.