By Shih-Chii Liu, Jorg Kramer, Giacomo Indiveri, Tobias Delbruck, Rodney Douglas
Neuromorphic engineers paintings to enhance the functionality of man-made structures throughout the improvement of chips and structures that procedure info jointly utilizing basically analog circuits. This ebook offers the principal thoughts required for the inventive and winning layout of analog VLSI circuits. The dialogue is weighted towards novel circuits that emulate common sign processing. in contrast to so much circuits in advertisement or business purposes, those circuits function in general within the subthreshold or vulnerable inversion sector. additionally, their performance isn't constrained to linear operations, but in addition encompasses many attention-grabbing nonlinear operations just like these taking place in average structures. subject matters comprise equipment physics, linear and nonlinear circuit kinds, translinear circuits, photodetectors, floating-gate units, noise research, and technique know-how.
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Verbal factors are preferred over mathematical formulation, graphs are saved to a minimal, and line drawings are utilized in this elementary ebook. transparent advice and suggestion are supplied for these pros who lay out analog circuits.
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Additional info for Analog VLSI: Circuits and Principles
N: . . : : : . : . : : . :: . 2 Physical structure of (a) an nFET and (b) a pFET in a common p- substrate. The pFET rests in a n-well within the substrate. (also called polysilicon or poly), which has low resistivity. We can view the transistor as having four terminals; the gate (G), the source (S), the drain (D), and the bulk (B). Because the n+ source and drain regions can supply a lot of Chapter 3 50 electrons to the channel, this device is called an n-channel MOSFET (nFET)4 .
The potential difference separating the Fermi level E F and the intrinsic Fermi level Ei of the semiconductor can be computed from Eqs. 2. 3. 7 , 2. 3. 8, and 2. 4. 9as (2. 7. 1) An MIS diode is called ideal if it has the following properties: Firstly, when there is no applied bias, the work functions of the semiconductor and the metal are equal: the Fermi levels line up and the energy bands in the semiconductor are flat (flat-band condition). Secondly, the charge on the conductor plate is equal to the total charge in the semiconductor with opposite sign.
2 Current-Voltage Characteristics of an nFET We start by deriving the current-voltage characteristics of the nFET. The characteristics of the MOSFET depend on the relative voltages between the four terminals. The terminal voltages are usually referenced to the source or to the bulk voltage. 4 Biased MOSFETs showing the direction of conventional current flow. (a) For proper nFET operation, we should ensure that Vg 2: Vb, Vs 2: Vb, and Vd 2: Vb. If Vd 2: Vs, the channel current I is positive, flowing from drain to source as shown.