Download Applied Ontology by Katherine Munn, Barry Smith PDF

By Katherine Munn, Barry Smith

Ontology is the philosophical self-discipline that goals to appreciate how issues on this planet are divided into different types and the way those different types are comparable. this is often precisely what details scientists target for in developing established, automatic representations, known as ontologies, for dealing with details in fields such as technological know-how, executive, undefined, and healthcare. at the moment, those structures are designed in quite a few alternative ways, so they can't proportion info with each other. This quantity indicates, in a non-technical manner and utilizing examples from medication and biology, how the rigorous software of theories and insights from philosophical ontology can enhance the ontologies upon which details administration relies.

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Every object studied by ontology is also studied by some other discipline. However, ontology studies a different aspect of those things. According to Aristotle, ontology is concerned with everything that exists only insofar as it exists. Existence itself is the aspect relevant to ontology. Hence, ontology will be possible only if there are features that each existing thing has only 3 All translations are the author’s unless otherwise specified. 40 because, and insofar as, it exists. Momentarily, we will ask what sorts of features these may be.

Rather, an ontological theory may be formal and regional at the same time. A regional ontology deals with a limited range of entities, but as long as it does not advance any particular judgments, it can still deal with them in a general way. For instance, the (regional) ontology of occurrents found in Basic Formal Ontology (see Chapter 1) studies only a limited range of entities, namely those that occur or unfold in time, but it does not study specific events or processes in particular, such as the death of Socrates or the Great Depression.

Any inquiry of this sort would have to rely on empirical knowledge about particular states of affairs; but we have already pointed out that ontology is not another special science. By the same token, it is not the study of such a special object as our experience of the world. Formal ontology is not directly concerned with particular objects of experience, nor does it have experience as its object. It is concerned with the forms that all possible objects of experience must have, and it proceeds by reflecting on experience.

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