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Extra resources for Beyond Decoding: The Behavioral and Biological Foundations of Reading Comprehension
For instance, participants were told to execute the “poke” gesture when they saw a green object. The gesture executed could thus be the functional gesture for the pictured object, the volumetric gesture for the pictured object, or irrelevant for the use of the pictured object. Participants were faster to execute the action when it was the functional or volumetric gesture for the pictured object than when it was irrelevant to the object. In a subsequent experiment, Bub et al. (2008) show that the same effect arises when the name of the object (rather than the picture) is presented on the screen.
The studies reviewed to this point demonstrate a relatively consistent pattern of results. When participants process sentences and visual percepts in succession, congruency effects occur: Participants are faster to respond when the information described by the sentence matches that presented in the visual percept. When participants are asked to process sentences and percepts at the same time, interference occurs: Participants are faster to respond when the content of the sentence mismatches the content of the percept, and their perceptual acuity is reduced when the perceptual stimuli that are presented are congruent with the content of the language with respect to content or spatial location.
Away] 12 COGNITIVE APPROACHES 7. The confetti fell on the parade. [Down] 8. The rocket blasted off. [Up] Participants listened to these sentences and made sensibility (or grammaticality) judgments on them. While doing so, the participants viewed percepts depicting motion toward them, away from them, upward, or downward. During the processing of any given sentence, the percept moved either in the same direction as the motion described in the sentence (toward sentence, toward percept) or in the opposite direction as the motion described in the sentence (toward sentence, away percept).