Download C/C++ Programmer's Reference by Herbert Schildt PDF

By Herbert Schildt

This consultant experiences the principles and syntax of the primary instructions that contain C and its object-oriented cousin, C++. The reference includes 19 chapters that outline operators and the normal input/output, string, personality, and extra.

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Sizeof The sizeof compile-time operator returns the length (in bytes) of the variable or type it precedes. If it precedes a type, that type must be enclosed in parentheses. If it precedes a variable, the parentheses are optional. For example, given 64 Chapter 5: Keyword Summary Chapter 5: Keyword Summary 65 int i; cout << sizeof(int); cout << sizeof i; both output statements will print 4 in most 32-bit environments. For C99, sizeof is evaluated at runtime when it is applied to a variable-length array.

For example, it can be used to cast a base class pointer into a derived class pointer. It can also be used for any standard conversion. No runtime checks are performed. It has this general form: static_cast (expr) struct The struct keyword is used to create an aggregate data type called a structure. In C++, a structure can contain both function and data members. It has the same capabilities as a class except that, by default, its members are public rather than private. The general form of a C++ structure is struct class-name : inheritance-list { // public members by default protected: // private members that can be inherited private: // private members } object-list; The class-name is the type name of the structure, which is a class type.

Often, this means searching some special directory set aside for header files. If the filename is enclosed in quotes, the file is looked for in another implementation-defined manner. For many implementations, this means searching the current working directory. If the file is not found, the search is repeated as if the filename had been enclosed in angle brackets. You must check your compiler’s user manual for details on the differences between angle brackets and double quotes. #include statements can be nested within other included files.

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