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By H. B. Bakoglu

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Extra info for Circuits, Interconnections, and Packaging for Vlsi

Example text

Figure 2–18 shows a variable supply. FIGURE 2–17 Fixed power supplies. ) FIGURE 2–18 Variable laboratory power supply. ■ Practical DC Voltage Sources 45 46 Chapter 2 ■ Voltage and Current Solar Cells Solar cells convert light energy to electrical energy using photovoltaic means. The basic cell consists of two layers of semiconductor material. When light strikes the cell, many electrons gain enough energy to cross from one layer to the other to create a dc voltage. Solar energy has a number of practical applications.

The battery on the computer motherboard is for memory backup. 5 ■ 43 Practical DC Voltage Sources and battery backup of computer memories. 5 V and current ratings from the microampere to the ampere range. Nickel-Cadmium Commonly called “Ni-Cads,” these are the most popular, general-purpose rechargeable batteries available. They have long service lives, operate over wide temperature ranges, and are manufactured in many styles and sizes, including C, D, AAA, and AA. Inexpensive chargers make it economically feasible to use nickel-cadmium batteries for home entertainment equipment.

A = ␲r2 = ␲d 4 2 FIGURE 3–2 Conductor with a circular cross-section. 1 mm (T ϭ 20°C). Answer: 698 ⍀ EXAMPLE 3–2 Bus bars are bare solid conductors (usually rectangular) used to carry large currents within buildings such as power generating stations, telephone exchanges, and large factories. Given a piece of aluminum bus bar as shown in Figure 3–3, determine the resistance between the ends of this bar at a temperature of 20°C. 70 m l=2 150 FIGURE 3–3 Conductor with a rectangular cross section. 48 m⍀ IN-PROCESS LEARNING CHECK 1 1.