By Dixian Zhao, Patrick Reynaert
This ebook makes a speciality of the improvement of layout recommendations and methodologies for 60-GHz and E-band strength amplifiers and transmitters at equipment, circuit and structure degrees. The authors exhibit the new improvement of millimeter-wave layout thoughts, in particular of strength amplifiers and transmitters, and provides novel layout suggestions, resembling “power transistor format” and “4-way parallel-series energy combiner”, that could increase the output energy and potency of strength amplifiers in a compact silicon sector. 5 state of the art 60-GHz and E-band designs with measured effects are validated to end up the effectiveness of the layout thoughts and hands-on methodologies provided. This booklet serves as a helpful reference for circuit designers to boost millimeter-wave construction blocks for destiny 5G applications.
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Additional resources for CMOS 60-GHz and E-band Power Amplifiers and Transmitters
The effective dielectric permittivity in Fig. 13) p where c (D 3 108 m/s) is the speed of light. Note that eff is called the slowing factor as the phase velocity of the on-chip electrical signal can also be expressed as p v D c= eff . It can be seen that the phase velocity and thus the wavelength can be reduced by more than 50 %. In Fig. 21c, it seems that the T-line 3 has the highest 52 3 mm-Wave Active and Passive Devices loss but we have to consider that both the phase velocity and the wavelength of Tline 3 are about half of the other two.
Sajadieh, M. El-Tanani, K. 3 dbm class-d outphasing power amplifier in 32 nm cmos for wlan application. IEEE J. Solid State Circuits 46(7), 1596–1605 (2011) 5. P. J. 75-GHz polar modulated cmos rf power amplifier for gsmedge. IEEE J. Solid State Circuits 40(12), 2598–2608 (2005) 6. D. Leenaerts, J. van der Tang, C. Vaucher, Circuit Design for RF Transceivers (Kluwer Academic, Dordrecht, 2001) 7. I. Aoki, S. Kee, D. Rutledge, A. Hajimiri, Distributed active transformer-a new powercombining and impedance-transformation technique.
6 PA Classes versus input signal drive and conduction angle  Fig. 7 Power combining based on transformer-based series combiner where N is the number of transformers, m the transformer turn ratio, RPA the PA output impedance, and VPA the complex output voltage of each PA. It can be seen that ZIN;j depends on the output impedance and voltage of other PAs as well. This is called active load modulation effect. 8) The impedance seen by the PA is now only determined by the turn ratio m and the number of the combining path N.