By Roger A. Pedersen, Gerald P. Schatten
This quantity maintains the customized of addressing developmental mechanisms in a number of experimental structures by way of supplying well timed reports and incisive research of key examine in developmental biology. The conceptual series of subject matters starts with telephone cycle legislation in the course of improvement and differentiation, maintains with the function of the epididymis and with sperm pageant, gastrulation, and embryonic stem cells, and concludes with concerns of differentation in muscle cells and neurons. This quantity not just is effective to researchers on the leading edge of animal improvement, but in addition is a pleasant advent to scholars and pros who wish an advent to mobile and molecular mechanisms of improvement.
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This quantity keeps the customized of addressing developmental mechanisms in numerous experimental structures through delivering well timed reports and incisive research of key examine in developmental biology. The conceptual series of issues starts with mobile cycle law in the course of improvement and differentiation, maintains with the position of the epididymis and with sperm festival, gastrulation, and embryonic stem cells, and concludes with concerns of differentation in muscle cells and neurons.
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Additional resources for Current Topics in Developmental Biology, Vol. 33
1987). However, R7 still differentiates at the proper place and time in ommatidia constitutively expressing Sev (Basler and Hafen, 1989; Bowtell et a f . , 1989). This indicates that mechanisms beyond the restricted expression of Sev ensure that induction takes place properly. , 1991), and so only those Sev-expressing cells that contact R8 have the possibility of becoming induced. This prevents some cells-for example the “mystery cells” (Fig. 8)from adopting the R7 fate, even though they express Sev and have the potential to become R7 photoreceptor cells.
Rsk A Drosophila Rsk homolog has been identified by PCR cloning (Wassennan et a l . , 1994). rsk mutants have not yet been identified, so it is uncertain what role Rsk plays in Sev or other receptor tyrosine kinase signaling pathways in Drosophila. 11. Nuclear Targets Although a variety of cytoplasmic and membrane proteins have been proposed as substrates of mammalian p42 and p44 MAP kinases, thus far only proteins that are likely to reside in the nucleus have been identified as MAP kinase targets in Drosophila genetic screens.
C) Constitutive activation of the MAP kinase pathway is sufficient to bring about mitogenesis and cell induction. It is less certain that activation of the MAP kinase pathway to the extent and for the duration seen in the physiological system cases would suffice to bring about mitogenesis or cell induction. 20 James E. Ferrell, Jr. , 1994). , 1994). , 1994). , 1994b), described above, can be activated in a Rasdependent fashion and thus appear to be part of another branch of Ras signaling. A Ras-responsive protein kinase termed Frk, which can phosphorylate and transactivate the Fos protein, appears to represent another branch of Ras signaling.