By Massimiliano De Magistris, Giovanni Miano
Questo libro è un testo introduttivo ai circuiti in keeping with i corsi delle Facoltà di Ingegneria, al primo livello. Esso parte dai concetti di intensità di corrente, tensione e potenza elettrica, introducendo le leggi di Kirchhoff ed il modello circuitale su base fisica. Vengono poi introdotti gli elementi circuitali fondamentali ed illustrate le proprietà generali dei circuiti. Successivamente sono trattati i circuiti lineari e pace invarianti in maniera completa, sviluppandone le principali tecniche di analisi. Nonostante il taglio introduttivo e l’attenzione advert uno stile piano ed accessibile, il testo si propone di affrontare il modello circuitale in modo rigoroso ed al pace stesso moderno.
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Additional info for Fondamenti di Teoria dei Circuiti (Ingegneria Elettrica)
120) It follows that the normalized noise factor (nI chain Ql' Q2 is given by = 4kT oR 1) of the I ~B GalG2GOn~ d! 121) If we assume that for - B < ! ) 1 c 4kT oR 1 + --Ga1(fc) X eB G2GOn; d! --"---"------;;r;--:--:-- 4kT oR o J~B G2GOd! 125) to determine the effective noise temperature of a chain formed by an amplifier A , preceded by an attenuator a. Let Terra' TerrA and TeffaA respectively represent the effective noise temperatures of the attenuator a, ofthe amplifier A and of the chain a, A.
71) (BIN ratios normalized). 73) The factor 3(fn( B)2 is called the improvement factor. It should be noted that the improvement obtained is at the expense of an increase in the width of the frequency band occupied by the modulated signal (2B 1 ), which is approximately equal to 2B for amplitude modulation and usually exceeds 2(fn + B) for frequency modulation. Note 3. As far as the distribution law of the random variables [md(t)hM and [md(t)]FM is concerned, for a given value of t, it should be noted that if, in addition to conditions (a) and (b) certain other conditions are satisfied (validity of the central limit theory in the calculation of probabilities), which are generally true in practice, these variables are distributed approximately in accordance with a Gaussian distribution about their mean values, which are equal to [H(q)mA cos qt] and [H(q)mwn cos qt] respectively.
78) [Zu + with: n1 cD ) = (Cl n~ = (c~ CI*) (1. 80) It should be noted that, unlike the densities n~, n; and n~2 which are independent ofthe terminations Zl> Z2' the density n' depends on Zl' and consequently does not constitute a characteristic magnitude peculiar to the two-port. 2. f. BACKGROUND NOISE 23 (more precisely, of noise spectral density of the latter). We will now show that, in this case, it is possible to obtain an equivalent circuit for the two-port Q directly from the network formed by the components of the two-port.