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By J. C. Decroly

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120) It follows that the normalized noise factor (nI chain Ql' Q2 is given by = 4kT oR 1) of the I ~B GalG2GOn~ d! 121) If we assume that for - B < ! ) 1 c 4kT oR 1 + --Ga1(fc) X eB G2GOn; d! --"---"------;;r;--:--:-- 4kT oR o J~B G2GOd! 125) to determine the effective noise temperature of a chain formed by an amplifier A , preceded by an attenuator a. Let Terra' TerrA and TeffaA respectively represent the effective noise temperatures of the attenuator a, ofthe amplifier A and of the chain a, A.

71) (BIN ratios normalized). 73) The factor 3(fn( B)2 is called the improvement factor. It should be noted that the improvement obtained is at the expense of an increase in the width of the frequency band occupied by the modulated signal (2B 1 ), which is approximately equal to 2B for amplitude modulation and usually exceeds 2(fn + B) for frequency modulation. Note 3. As far as the distribution law of the random variables [md(t)hM and [md(t)]FM is concerned, for a given value of t, it should be noted that if, in addition to conditions (a) and (b) certain other conditions are satisfied (validity of the central limit theory in the calculation of probabilities), which are generally true in practice, these variables are distributed approximately in accordance with a Gaussian distribution about their mean values, which are equal to [H(q)mA cos qt] and [H(q)mwn cos qt] respectively.

78) [Zu + with: n1 cD ) = (Cl n~ = (c~ CI*) (1. 80) It should be noted that, unlike the densities n~, n; and n~2 which are independent ofthe terminations Zl> Z2' the density n' depends on Zl' and consequently does not constitute a characteristic magnitude peculiar to the two-port. 2. f. BACKGROUND NOISE 23 (more precisely, of noise spectral density of the latter). We will now show that, in this case, it is possible to obtain an equivalent circuit for the two-port Q directly from the network formed by the components of the two-port.

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