By William F. Egan

Focusing on second-order loops, this creation to rules that may be utilized to quite a lot of part- locked loop circuits is supplemented by means of a few MATLABR simulation routines that let the reader to extend his or her wisdom of the circuit layout method. Twenty chapters discover such issues as: loop elements, reaction, and balance; temporary and modulation reaction; acquisition; section modulation via noise; reaction to noise modulation, illustration of and loop reaction to additive noise; and parameter edition, nonlinear operation, and cycle skipping because of noise.

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Extra resources for Phase-Lock Basics

Sample text

Otherwise errors, typically of 2π , begin to appear in important computed parameters. For example, if ϕ equals 10t 2 rad/sec2 (a linear frequency sweep), then the frequency is ω= dϕ = 20t rad/sec2 . 18t Hz/sec. 2) that these expressions produce correct units for phase and frequency when time units are included with t. 54 Hz. 5 PHASE DEFINITIONS 7 In this example the change of symbol between ω and f is a clue to the units, but it is more efficient to carry units than to memorize a different set of formulas for each set of units.

Note, in Fig. 5, that if ϕin = ωin t and ϕout = ϕout t, then ϕ = − ωt, and the output voltage will be a sinusoid at frequency ω. Thus the same characteristic that describes the PD output also describes the output at the difference frequency. Other signals will accompany the desired low- or zero-frequency output and must be suppressed by a low-pass filter. For a balanced mixer (BM) the strongest of these will normally be at the sum frequency. Of next greatest concern will be leakage at the input frequency.

We will use the gain to determine the modulation frequency and then use the modulation frequency to determine the phase shift. 2. 19), this occurs at ωm K 2 + 1 = 5, from which we obtain √ ωm = 24, K giving the modulation frequency as ωm = 4899 rad/sec. 5◦ . 5◦ . 3 MATHEMATICAL BLOCK DIAGRAM 21 The usual input and output state variables (y for voltage or current) are shown below the plot of instantaneous frequency. The input happens to be a sinusoid while the output is a square wave. These are intended to illustrate the meaning of the frequency deviations plotted above.