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By Norman G. Einspruch, Robert S. Bauer

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Subsequent annealing studies by Barton et al [64] showed an activa­ tion energy for the phosphorus concentration in the spike. This could be related to the observed Auger shift toward high binding energy for phospho­ rus in the spike [62], 40 S. A. Schwarz and M. J. Schulz 200 r 800 1700 1800 1900 2000 600 700 DEPTH (X) Fig. 7. Six oxides of increasing thickness on a Si substrate (2 X 1020 phosphorus) exhibit a P pileup at the interface as observed by AES. (From Schwarz et al. [62]. ) 100 500 D.

Roughness was found to increase as the oxidation rate was increased or the oxidation temperature decreased, corre­ sponding to a balance between reaction-induced roughening and diffusioninduced smoothing. C. Chemical Structure of the Interface A careful examination of energy profiles from AES sputter profiles of the interface by Chang [71] and Helms et al [85] revealed a chemical state intermediate between Si0 2 and Si in the interfacial region. The integrated concentration of Si in this state corresponded to ~ 1015/cm3 or one monolayer, again indicating an abrupt interface.

Hollinger and Himpsel [57] recently observed four oxidation states of Si as the first monolayer of oxide is formed. Another recent study by Derrien et al. [58] examined the growth of very thin Si0 2 layers using in-situ Auger electron spectroscopy (AES) and electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS). (Auger electron spectroscopy detects near-surface electron emission with electron energies characteristic of the emitting atom and its bonding environment. The Si0 2 layer thickness is assessed from the decreasing magnitude of the pure Si signal as oxidation progresses).

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