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Extra info for VLSI electronics, microstructure science. 10, Surface and interface effects in VLSI
Subsequent annealing studies by Barton et al  showed an activa tion energy for the phosphorus concentration in the spike. This could be related to the observed Auger shift toward high binding energy for phospho rus in the spike , 40 S. A. Schwarz and M. J. Schulz 200 r 800 1700 1800 1900 2000 600 700 DEPTH (X) Fig. 7. Six oxides of increasing thickness on a Si substrate (2 X 1020 phosphorus) exhibit a P pileup at the interface as observed by AES. (From Schwarz et al. . ) 100 500 D.
Roughness was found to increase as the oxidation rate was increased or the oxidation temperature decreased, corre sponding to a balance between reaction-induced roughening and diffusioninduced smoothing. C. Chemical Structure of the Interface A careful examination of energy profiles from AES sputter profiles of the interface by Chang  and Helms et al  revealed a chemical state intermediate between Si0 2 and Si in the interfacial region. The integrated concentration of Si in this state corresponded to ~ 1015/cm3 or one monolayer, again indicating an abrupt interface.
Hollinger and Himpsel  recently observed four oxidation states of Si as the first monolayer of oxide is formed. Another recent study by Derrien et al.  examined the growth of very thin Si0 2 layers using in-situ Auger electron spectroscopy (AES) and electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS). (Auger electron spectroscopy detects near-surface electron emission with electron energies characteristic of the emitting atom and its bonding environment. The Si0 2 layer thickness is assessed from the decreasing magnitude of the pure Si signal as oxidation progresses).